Key Publications


Model development

  • Norman JM, Jarvis PG (1974) Photosynthesis in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) III. Measurements of canopy structure and interception of radiation. J. Appl. Ecol. 11: 375-398.
  • Norman JM, Jarvis PG (1975) Photosynthesis in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) V. Radiation penetration theory and a test case. J. Appl. Ecol. 12: 839-878.
  • Norman JM, Welles JM (1983) Radiative transfer in an array of canopies. Agron. J. 75: 481-488.
  • Welles JM, Norman JM (1991) Photon transport in discontinuous canopies: a weighted random approach. In Photon-Vegetation Interactions. Eds RB Myneni, J Ross. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 389-414.
  • Grace JC, Jarvis PG, Norman JM (1987a) Modelling the interception of solar radiant energy in intensively managed stands. N. Z. J. For. Sci. 17: 193-209.
  • Grace JC, Rook DA, Lane PM (1987b) Modelling canopy photosynthesis in Pinus radiata stands. N. Z. J. For. Sci. 17: 210-228.
  • Wang YP (1988) Crown structure, radiation absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration. PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh, 78 pp.


Model components

Daylength calculation 

  • Barkstrom B (1981) What time does the sun rise and set? BYTE July 1981, 94-114.

Partitioning of direct and diffuse radiation 

  • Spitters CJT, Toussaint HAJM, Goudriaan J (1986) Separating the diffuse and direct component of global radiation and its implications for modeling canopy photosynthesis. I. Components of incoming radiation. Agric. For. Meteorol. 38: 217-229.
  • Weiss A, Norman JM (1985) Partitioning solar radiation into direct and diffuse, visible and near-infrared components. Agric. For. Meteorol. 34: 205-213.

Radiation transmission 

  • Norman JM (1979) Modelling the complete crop canopy. In Modification of the Aerial Environment of Crops. Eds. BJ Barfield & JF Gerber. Am. Soc. Agric. Eng. Monogr. No. 2, ASAE, St Joseph, MI, pp. 249-277.
  • Norman JM (1980) Interfacing leaf and canopy light interception models. In Predicting Photosynthesis for Ecosystem Models, vol. 2. Eds. JD Hesketh & JW Jones. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
  • Irradiance on slopes Steven MD, Unsworth MH (1979) The diffuse solar irradiance of slopes under buttless skies. Quart. J. Royal Met. Soc. 105: 593-602.

Leaf angle distribution 

  • Campbell GS (1986) Extinction coefficients for radiation in plant canopies calculated using an ellipsoidal inclination angle distribution. Agric. For. Meteorol. 36: 317-321.
  • Wang YP, Jarvis PG (1988) Mean leaf angles for the ellipsoidal inclination angle distribution. Agric. For. Meteorol. 43: 319-321.
  • Campbell GS (1990) Derivation of an angle density function for canopies with ellipsoidal leaf angle distributions. Agric. For. Meteorol. 49: 173-176.

Crown shape 

  • Baldwin VC Jr, Peterson KD (1997) Predicting the crown shape of loblolly pine trees. Can. J. Forest Res. 27: 102-107.

Leaf area density distribution (beta functions) 

  • Wang YP, Jarvis PG, Benson ML (1990) Two-dimensional needle-area density distribution within the crowns of Pinus radiata. Forest Ecol. Manag. 32: 217-237.
  • Baldwin VC Jr, Peterson KD, Burkhart HE, Amateis RL, Dougherty PM (1997) Equations for estimating loblolly pine branch and foliage weight and surface area distributions. Can. J. Forest Res. 27: 918-927.
  • Kershaw JA, Maguire DA (1996) Crown structure in western hemlock, Douglas fir and grand fir in western Washington: Horizontal distribution of foliage within branches. Can. J. Forest Res. 26: 128 – 142.
  • Maguire DA, Bennett WS  (1996) Patterns in vertical distribution of foliage in young coastal Douglas-fir. Can. J. Forest Res. 26: 1991-2005.
  • Porte A, Bosc A, Champion I, Loustau D (2000) Estimating the foliage area of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) branches and crowns with application to modelling the foliage area distribution in the crown. Ann. For. Sci. 57: 73-86.

Stomatal conductance 

  • Leuning, R. (1995). A Critical-Appraisal of a Combined Stomatal-Photosynthesis Model for C-3 Plants. Plant Cell and Environment. 18:339-355. 
  • Ball JT,Woodrow IE, Berry JA (1987) A model predicting stomatal conductance and its contribution to the control of photosynthesis under different environmental conditions. In: Progress in Photosynthesis Research (ed. Biggins J), pp. 221–224. Martinus-Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands. 
  • Medlyn, B., R. Duursma, D. Eamus, D. Ellsworth, I. Prentice, C. Barton, K. Crous, P. De Angelis, M. Freeman and L. Wingate. 2011. Reconciling the optimal and empirical approaches to modelling stomatal conductance. Global Change Biology DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02375.x

Maespa water balance, soil evaporation and hydraulics

  • Choudhury, B.J. and J.L. Monteith 1988. A four-layer model for the heat budget of homogeneous land surfaces. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. 114:373-398.
  • Cosby, B.J., G.M. Hornberger, R.B. Clapp and T.R. Ginn 1984. A statistical exploration of the relationships of soil-moisture characteristics to the physical properties of soils. Water Resources Research. 20:682-690.
  • Duursma, R.A., Medlyn, B.E. 2012. MAESPA: A model to study interactions between water limitation, environmental drivers and vegetation function at tree and stand levels, with an example application to [CO2] x drought interactions. Geoscientific Model Development. 5:919-940. DOWNLOAD
  • Duursma, R.A., P. Kolari, M. Peramaki, E. Nikinmaa, P. Hari, S. Delzon, D. Loustau, H. Ilvesniemi, J. Pumpanen and A. Makela 2008. Predicting the decline in daily maximum transpiration rate of two pine stands during drought based on constant minimum leaf water potential and plant hydraulic conductance. Tree Physiology. 28:265-276.
  • Jackson, R.B., J. Canadell, J.R. Ehleringer, H.A. Mooney, O.E. Sala and E.D. Schulze. 1996. A global analysis of root distributions for terrestrial biomes. Oecologia. 108:389-411.
  • Lu, S., T. Ren, Y. Gong and R. Horton 2007. An Improved Model for Predicting Soil Thermal Conductivity from Water Content at Room Temperature. Soil Sci Soc Am J. 71:8-14
  • Medlyn, B.E., R.A. Duursma, D. Eamus, D.S. Ellsworth, I.C. Prentice, C.V.M. Barton, K.Y. Crous, P. De Angelis, M. Freeman and L. Wingate. 2011. Reconciling the optimal and empirical approaches to modelling stomatal conductance. Global Change Biology. 17:2134-2144.
  • Rutter, A.J., A.J. Morton and P.C. Robins 1975. A predictive model of rainfall interception in forests. III. Generalization of the model and comparison with observations in some coniferous and hardwood stands. Journal of Applied Ecology. 12:367-380.
  • Williams, M., B.E. Law, P.M. Anthoni and M.H. Unsworth 2001. Use of a simulation model and ecosystem flux data to examine carbon-water interactions in ponderosa pine. Tree Physiology. 21:287-298.
  • Taylor, H.M. and B. Keppler. 1975. Water uptake by cotton root systems: an examination of assumptions in the single root model. Soil Science. 120:57-67.
  • Tuzet, A., A. Perrier and R. Leuning. 2003. A coupled model of stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and transpiration. Plant Cell and Environment. 26:1097-1116.
  • Zhou, S., Duursma, R.A., Medlyn, B.E., Kelly, J.W.G., Prentice, I.C., 2014. How should we model plant responses to drought? An analysis of stomatal and non-stomatal responses to water stress. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology.


Model applications (1985 - current)

Have a reference to add? Let us know!

  • Morales A., Leffelaar P.A., Testi L., Orgaz F. & Villalobos F.J. (2016) A dynamic model of potential growth of olive (Olea europaea L.) orchards. European Journal of Agronomy, 74, 93-102. doi:
  • Christina, M., Le Maire, G., Battie-Laclau, P., Nouvellon, Y., Bouillet, J.-P., Jourdan, C., de Moraes Gonçalves, J.L., Laclau, J.-P., 2015. Measured and modeled interactive effects of potassium deficiency and water deficit on gross primary productivity and light-use efficiency in Eucalyptus grandis plantations. Glob Change Biol 21, 2022–2039. doi:10.1111/gcb.12817
  • Reuning, G.A., Bauerle, W.L., Mullen, J.L., Mckay, J.K., 2015. Combining quantitative trait loci analysis with physiological models to predict genotype-specific transpiration rates. Plant Cell Environ 38, 710–717. doi:10.1111/pce.12429
  • Barnard, D.M., Bauerle, W.L., 2015. Species-specific irrigation scheduling with a spatially explicit biophysical model: A comparison to substrate moisture sensing with insight into simplified physiological parameterization. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 214–215, 48–59. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2015.08.244
  • Forrester, David I., and Axel T. Albrecht. (2014) Light absorption and light-use efficiency in mixtures of Abies alba and Picea abies along a productivity gradient. Forest Ecology and Management 328 : 94-102.
  • Forrester, D. I. (2014). A stand-level light interception model for horizontally and vertically heterogeneous canopies. Ecological Modelling, 276, 14-22.
  • Bauerle, W. L., Daniels, A. B., & Barnard, D. M. (2014). Carbon and water flux responses to physiology by environment interactions: a sensitivity analysis of variation in climate on photosynthetic and stomatal parameters. Climate Dynamics, 42(9-10), 2539-2554.
  • Le Maire, G., Nouvellon, Y., Christina, M., Ponzoni, F. J., Gonzalves, J. L. M., Bouillet, J. P., & Laclau, J. P. (2013). Tree and stand light use efficiencies over a full rotation of single-and mixed-species Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium plantations. Forest ecology and management, 288, 31-42.
  • Charbonnier, F., le Maire, G., Dreyer, E., Casanoves, F., Christina, M., Dauzat, J., Eitel, J.U.H., Vaast, P., Vierling, L.A., Roupsard, O. (2013). Competition for light in heterogeneous canopies: Application of MAESTRA to a coffee (Coffea arabica L.) agroforestry system. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 181, 152-169.
  • Campoe, O. C., Stape, J. L., Nouvellon, Y., Laclau, J. P., Bauerle, W. L., Binkley, D., & Le Maire, G. (2013). Stem production, light absorption and light use efficiency between dominant and non-dominant trees of Eucalyptus grandis across a productivity gradient in Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management, 288, 14-20.
  • Barnard, D.M., Bauerle, W.L. (2013). The implications of minimum stomatal conductance on modeling water flux in forest canopies. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. doi 10.1002/jgrg.20112
  • De Kauwe MG, Medlyn BE, Zaehle S, Walker AP, Dietze MC, Hickler T, Jain AK, Luo Y, Parton WJ, Prentice IC, Smith B, Thornton PE, Wang S, Wang Y-P, WÃ¥rlind D, Weng ES, Crous KY, Ellsworth DS, Hanson PJ, Seok-Kim H, Warren JM, Oren R, Norby RJ (2013) Forest water use and water use efficiency at elevated CO2: a model-data intercomparison at two contrasting temperate forest FACE sites. Global Change Biology doi: 10.1111/gcb.12164
  • Binkley D, Stape JL, Bauerle WL, Ryan MG (2013) Explaining growth of individual trees: Light interception and efficiency of light use by Eucalyptus at four sites in Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management, 259, 1704-1713.
  • Campoe OC, Stape JL, Albaugh TJ, Allen Hl, Fox TR, Rubilar R, Binkley D (2013) Fertilization and irrigation effects on tree level aboveground net primary production, light interception and light use efficiency in a loblolly pine plantation. Forest Ecology and Management, 288, 43-48.
  • Campoe OC, Stape JL, Nouvellon Y, Laclau J-P, Bauerle WL, Binkley D, Le Maire G (2013) Stem production, light absorption and light use efficiency between dominant and non-dominant trees of Eucalyptus grandis across a productivity gradient in Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management, 288, 14-20.
  • Forrester DI, Collopy JJ, Beadle CL, Baker TG (2013) Effect of thinning, pruning and nitrogen fertiliser application on light interception and light-use efficiency in a young Eucalyptus nitens plantation. Forest Ecology and Management, 288, 21-30.
  • Gspaltl M, Bauerle W, Binkley D, Sterba H (2013) Leaf area and light use efficiency patterns of Norway spruce under different thinning regimes and age classes. Forest Ecology and Management, 288, 49-59.
  • Le Maire G, Nouvellon Y, Christina M, Ponzoni FJ, Goncalves JLM, Bouillet JP, Laclau JP (2013) Tree and stand light use efficiencies over a full rotation of single- and mixed-species Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium plantations. Forest Ecology and Management, 288, 31-42.
  • Daniels AB, Barnard DM, Chapman Pl, Bauerle Wl (2012) Optimizing Substrate Moisture Measurements in Containerized Nurseries. Hortscience, 47, 98-104.
  • Linderson, M.L., T. Mikkelsen, A. Ibrom, A. Lindroth, H. Ro-Poulsen and K. Pilegaard. (2012) Up-scaling of water use efficiency from leaf to canopy as based on leaf gas exchange relationships and the modeled in-canopy light distribution. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 152:201-211.
  • Bauerle, W.L. & Bowden, J.D. (2011) Predicting transpiration response to climate change: insights on physiological and morphological interactions that modulate water exchange from leaves to canopies. HortScience 46:163-166.
  • Bauerle, W.L. & Bowden, J.D. (2011) Separating foliar physiology from morphology reveals the relative roles of vertically structured transpiration factors within red maple crowns and limitations of larger scale models. J. Exp. Bot. 62:4295-4307.
  • Binkley D, Stape JL, Bauerle WL, Ryan MG (2010) Explaining growth of individual trees: light interception and efficiency of light use by Eucalyptus at four sites in Brazil. For. Ecol. Man. 259: 1704-1713
  • Richards AE, Schmidt S (2010) Complementary resource use by tree species in a rain forest tree plantation. Ecol. App. 20: 1237-1254.
  • Bauerle, W.L., J.D. Bowden, G.G. Wang and M.A. Shahba (2009) Exploring the importance of within-canopy spatial temperature variation on transpiration predictions. Journal of Experimental Botany. 60:3665-3676.
  • Keith H, Leuning R, Jacobsen KL, Cleugh HA, van Gorsel E, Raison RJ, Medlyn BE, Winters A, Keitel C (2009) Multiple measurements constrain estimates of net carbon exchange by a Eucalyptus forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 149:535-548.
  • Reynolds, R.F., W.L. Bauerle, and Y. Wang. (2009) Simulating carbon dioxide exchange rates of deciduous tree species: evidence for a general pattern in biochemical changes and water stress response. Annals of Botany, 104:775-784
  • Bowden JD, Bauerle WL (2008) Measuring and modeling the variation in species-specific transpiration in temperate deciduous hardwoods. Tree physiology, 28(11):1675-1683.
  • Chen, Q., D. Baldocchi, P. Gong and T. Dawson. 2008. Modeling radiation and photosynthesis of a heterogeneous savanna woodland landscape with a hierarchy of model complexities. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 148:1005-1020.
  • Bauerle, W.L., J.D. Bowden, and G.G. Wang. (2007). The influence of temperature on within-canopy acclimation and variation in leaf photosynthesis and respiration: Spatial acclimation to microclimate gradients among thermally divergent Acer rubrum L. genotypes. Journal of Experimental Botany, 58:3285-3298.
  •  Emhart VI, Martin TA, White TL, Huber DA (2007) Clonal variation in crown structure, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and growth of loblolly pine and slash pine. Tree Physiology 27: 421-430
  • Medlyn BE, Pepper DA, O’Grady A, Keith H (2007) Linking leaf and tree water use with an individual-based model. Tree Physiology, 27(12):1687-1699.
  • Bauerle W.L., Timlin D.J., Pachepcky Y.A., Anantharamu S (2006) Adaptation of the biological simulation model MAESTRA for use in a generic user interface. Agron. J. 98: 220-228.
  • Ibrom I,Jarvis PG, Clement R, Morgenstern K, Oltchev A, Medlyn B, Wang YP, Wingate L, Moncrieff JB, Gravenhorst G (2006) A comparative analysis of simulated and observed photosynthetic CO2 uptake in two coniferous forest canopies. Tree Physiology 26:845-864.
  • Janssens IA, Medlyn BE, Gielen B, Laureysens I, Jach ME, Van Hove D & Ceulemans R (2005) Carbon budget of Pinus sylvestris saplings after four years of exposure to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Tree Physiol. 25:325-337.
  • Medlyn BE, Berbigier P, Clement R, Grelle A, Loustau D, Linder S, Wingate L, Jarvis PG, Sigurdsson BD, McMurtrie RE (2005) The carbon balance of coniferous forests growing in contrasting climatic conditions: a model-based analysis. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 131:97-124.
  • Bauerle W.L., Bowden J.D., McLeod M.F., Toler J.E. (2004) Modeling intra-crown and intra-canopy interactions in red maple: assessment of light transfer on carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange. Tree Physiology 24: 589-597.
  • Hanson,P.J., J.S. Amthor, S.D. Wullschleger, K.B. Wilson, R.E. Grant, A. Hartley, D. Hui, E.R. Hunt, D.W. Johnson, J.S. Kimball, A.W. King, Y. Luo, S.G. McNulty, G. Sun, P.E. Thornton, S. Wang, M. Williams, D.D. Baldocchi and R.M. Cushman (2004) Oak forest carbon and water simulations: Model intercomparisons and evaluations against independent data. Ecological Monographs. 74:443-489.
  • Wang YP (2003) A comparison of three different canopy radiation models commonly used in plant modelling. Functional Plant Biol. 30:143-152.
  • Bauerle WL, Post CJ, McLeod MF, Dudley JB, Toler JE (2002) Measurement and modeling of the transpiration of a temperate red maple container nursery. Agric For Meteorol. 114: 45-57
  • Binkley D, Stape JL, Ryan MG, Barnard HR, Fownes J (2002) Age-related decline in forest ecosystem growth: An individual-tree, stand-structure hypothesis. Ecosystems 5 (1): 58-67
  • Cohan, D.S., J. Xu, R. Greenwald, M.H. Bergin and W.L. Chameides 2002. Impact of atmospheric aerosol light scattering and absorption on terrestrial net primary productivity. Global Biogeochem. Cycles. 16:1090.
  • Luxmoore RJ, Hargrove WW, Tharp ML, Post WM, Berry MW, Minser KS, Cropper WP Jr, Johnson DW, Zeide B, Amateis RL, Burkhart HE, Baldwin VC Jr, Peterson KD. (2002) Addressing multi-use issues in sustainable forest management with signal-transfer modeling.  Forest Ecology and Management (accepted).
  • Baldwin VC Jr, Burkhart HE, Westfall JA, Peterson KD (2001) Linking growth and yield and process models to estimate impact of environmental changes on growth of loblolly pine. For. Sci. 47: 77-82.
  • Ibrom A. (2001) Die biophysikalische Steuerung der Kohlenstoffbilanz in einem Fichtenbestand im Solling. Ber. Forschungszentrum Waldokosysteme, Reihe A, 173, 209 pp.
  • Luo Y, Medlyn BE, Hui D, Ellsworth D, Reynolds J & Katul G (2001) Gross primary productivity in the Duke forest: modeling synthesis of CO2 experiment and eddy-flux data. Ecol. Applic. 11: 239-252.
  • Broadhead, J.S. (2000) The Ecophysiology of Indigenous trees in Agroforestry Systems in the Semi-Arid Tropics. PhD Thesis, Nottingham University
  • Luxmoore RJ, Hargrove WW, Tharp ML, Post WM, Berry MW, Minser KS, Cropper WP Jr, Johnson DW, Zeide B, Amateis RL, Burkhart HE, Baldwin VC Jr, Peterson KD (2000) Signal-transfer modeling for regional assessment of forest responses to environmental changes in the southeastern United States. Environmental Modeling and Assessment  5: 125-137
  • Ibrom, A. (1999) Simulation of CO2 and water vapour fluxes in a young Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) plantation. Internal Report, Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Edinburgh.
  • Kruijt B, Barton CVM, Rey A, Jarvis PG (1999) The sensitivity of stand-scale photosynthesis and transpiration to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate. Hydrol. Earth System Sci. 3: 55-69.
  • Laitat E, Ceulemans R, Medlyn BE, LeFevre F, Forstreuter M, Jach ME, Rey A, Strassemeyer J, Jarvis PG (1999) Carbon uptake and allocation. In ECOCRAFT: Predicted Impacts of Rising Carbon Dioxide and Temperature on Forests in Europe at Stand Scale. Final Report to the EU. Coordinator: PG Jarvis, Edinburgh University. pp 87-96.
  • Baldwin VC Jr, Dougherty PM, Burkhart HE (1998) A linked model for simulating growth processes and stand development of loblolly pine. In The Productivity and Sustainability of Southern Forest Ecosystems in a Changing Environment. Eds. RA Mickler & S Fox. Springer-Verlag, New York Inc, pp 305€“325.
  • Cropper WP Jr, Peterson KD, Teskey RO (1998) MAESTRO simulations of the response of loblolly pine to elevated temperatures and carbon dioxide.  In The Productivity and Sustainability of Southern Forest Ecosystems in a Changing Environment. Eds. RA Mickler & S Fox. Springer-Verlag, New York Inc, pp 327-339.
  • Livingston NJ, Whitehead D, Kelliher FM, Wang YP, Grace JC, Walcroft AS, Byers JN, McSeveny TM, Millard P (1998) Nitrogen allocation and carbon isotope fractionation in relation to intercepted radiation and position in a young Pinus radiata D. Don tree. Plant Cell Environ. 21: 795-803.
  • Loustau D, Porté A, Bosc A, Sinoquet H, Kruijt B (1998). Modélisation de la transpiration, de la distribution du rayonnement et de la photosynthèse du Pin maritime au niveau aiguille et au niveau couvert: premiers résultats. Revue de Sciences Forestiers, 2: 267-280.
  • Medlyn BE (1998) Physiological basis of the light use efficiency model. Tree Physiol. 18: 167-176.
  • Rayment MB (1998) Carbon and water fluxes in a boreal forest ecosystem. PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh. 145 pp.
  • Wang YP, Rey A, Jarvis PG (1998) Carbon balance of young birch trees grown in ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Global Change Biol. 4: 797-807.
  • Kruijt B, Ongeri S, Jarvis PG (1997) Scaling PAR absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration from leaves to canopy. In Scaling up from cell to Landscape. Eds. P van Gardingen, G Foody & P Curran. SEB seminar series no 63, Cambridge Univ. Press, pp 79-104.
  • Levy PE, Moncrieff JB, Massheder JM, Jarvis PG, Scott SL, Brouwer J (1997) CO2 fluxes at leaf and canopy scale in millet, fallow and tiger bush vegetation at the HAPEX-Sahel southern super-site. J. Hydrol 189: 612-632.
  • Rey A (1997) Response of young birch trees (Betula pendula Roth.) to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh. 292 pp.
  • Medlyn BE (1996) The representation of photosynthetic productivity in an ecosystem model used to assess plant responses to climate change. PhD Thesis, University of New South Wales, Australia. 206 pp.
  • Jarvis PG (1995) The role of temperate trees and forests in CO2 fixation. Vegetatio 121: 157-174.
  • Lawson GJ, Crout NMJ, Levy PE, Mobbs DC, Wallace JS, Cannell MGR, Bradley RG (1995) The tree-crop interface - representation by coupling of forest and crop process-models. Agrofor. Systems 30: 199-221.
  • Wang YP, Polglase PJ (1995) The carbon balance in the tundra, boreal and humid tropical forests during climate change - scaling up from leaf physiology and soil carbon dynamics. Plant Cell Environ.18: 1226-1244.
  • Kirschbaum MUF, King DA, Comins HN, McMurtrie RE, Medlyn BE, Pongracic S, Murty D, Keith H, Raison RJ, Khanna PK (1994) Modelling forest response to increasing CO2 concentration under nutrient-limited conditions. Plant Cell Environ. 17:1081-1099.
  • Levy PE (1994) Application of MAESTRO to tropical agroforestry systems. Internal Report, Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Edinburgh.
  • Wang YP (1994) Models for assessing the impact of climatic change on forests. In: Climate Impact Assessment Methods for Asia and the Pacific. Eds. AJ Jakeman & AB Pittock. Australian International Development Assistance Bureau, pp 133-136.
  • Baldwin VC, Burkhart HE, Dougherty PM, Teskey RO (1993) Using a growth and yield model (PTAEDA2) as a driver for a biological process model (MAESTRO). USDA Forest Service Southern Forest Experiment Station Research Paper, No.276, p.U1 et seq.
  • McMurtrie RE, Wang YP (1993) Mathematical models of the photosynthetic response of tree stands to rising CO2 concentrations and temperatures. Plant Cell Environ. 16:1-13.
  • Chaves, M.M. and J.S. Pereira. 1992. Water stress, CO2 and climate change. Journal of Experimental Botany. 43:1131-1139.
  • Dougherty PM, Teskey RO, Jarvis PG (1992) Development of MAESTRO, a process based model for assessing the impact of ozone on net carbon exchange of loblolly pine trees. In  The response of southern commercial forests to air pollution: Transactions 21. Ed. RB Flagler.  Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburg, PA, pp 37-48.
  • McMurtrie RE, Comins HN, Kirschbaum MUF, Wang YP (1992) Modifying existing forest growth-models to take account of effects of elevated CO2. Aust. J. Bot. 40: 657-677.
  • Wang YP, McMurtrie RE, Landsberg JJ (1992). Modelling canopy photosynthetic productivity. In Crop Photosynthesis: Spatial and Temporal Determinants. Eds. NR Baker & H Thomas. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 43- 67.
  • Leuning R, Wang YP, Cromer RN (1991) Model simulations of spatial distributions and daily totals of photosynthesis in Eucalyptus grandis canopies. Oecologia 88: 494-503.
  • Wang YP, Jarvis PG, Taylor CMA (1991) PAR absorption and its relation to aboveground dry-matter production of Sitka spruce. J. Appl. Ecol. 28:547-560.
  • Dick JM, Jarvis PG, Barton CVM (1990) Influence of male and female cones on assimilate production of Pinus contorta trees within a forest stand. Tree Physiol. 7: 49-63.
  • Grace JC (1990a) Modeling the interception of solar radiant energy and net photosynthesis. In Process Modeling of Forest Growth Responses to Environmental Stress. Eds. RK Dixon, RS Meldahl, GA Ruark & WG Warren. Timber Press, pp. 142-158.
  • Grace JC (1990b) Process-level models for investigating alternative spacing patterns. In New Approaches to Spacing and Thinning in Plantation Forestry. Eds. RN James & GL Tarlton, Ministry of Forestry.  FRI Bulletin No. 151, pp 229-232.
  • Jarvis PG, Barton CVM, Dougherty PM, Teskey RO, Massheder JM (1990) Development and use of tree and forest response models: MAESTRO. In Acidic Deposition: SOS/T Vol III. The U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, Washington D.C. pp 167-179.
  • Ludlow AR, Randle TJ, Grace JC (1990) Developing a process-based growth model for Sitka Spruce. In Process Modeling of Forest Growth Responses to Environmental Stress. Eds. RK Dixon, RS Meldahl, GA Ruark & WG Warren. Timber Press, pp. 249-262.
  • Wang YP, Jarvis PG (1990b) Influence of crown structural properties on PAR absorption, photosynthesis, and transpiration in Sitka spruce €“ application of a model (MAESTRO). Tree Physiol. 7: 297-316.
  • Wang YP, Jarvis PG (1990c) Effect of incident beam and diffuse radiation on PAR absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration of Sitka spruce €“ a simulation study. Silva Carelica 15: 167-180.
  • Jarvis PG, Wang YP, Borralho NMG, Pereira JS (1989) Simulation of the role of stress on radiation absorption, assimilation, transpiration and water use efficiency of stands of Eucalyptus globulus. In Biomass Production by Fast-Growing Trees. Eds. JS Pereira & JJ Landsberg. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 169-179.
  • Unsworth MH, Wilshaw JC (1989) Wet, occult and dry deposition of pollutants on forests. Agric. For. Meteorol. 47: 221-238.
  • Grace JC (1988a) Effect of tree arrangement on intercepted radiant energy and photosynthesis. In Forest Growth Modelling and Prediction. Eds. AR Ek,  SR Shifley & TE Burk. US Dep. Agric. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-120, pp 285-292.
  • Grace JC (1988b) Effect of foliage distribution within crowns on intercepted radiant enery and photosynthesis. In Plant Form and Vegetation Structure: adaption, plasticity and relation to herbivory. Eds. MJA. Werger, PJM. van der Aart, HJ During & JTA Verhoeven. SPB Academic Publishing The Hague, The Netherlands, pp 153-159.
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